Aurangabad town is located in north east India on the national highway 02 (Grand Trunk Road) at its crossing with national highway 98. Its nearest large town is Bodh Gaya 70 kilometres (43 mi) to the west. The capital of Bihar, Patna is 140 kilometres (87 mi) to the north east.
The area of the town is 3,389 square kilometres (1,309 sq mi).
Aurangabad rests on alluvial plain on the bank of river Adri. The larger son river is 20 kilometres (12 mi) to the west. Other rivers such as the Punpun, Auranga, Bataane, Morhar, and Madaar flow through Aurangabad district.