Aurangabad is sometimes called the “Chittorgarh of Bihar” because of its largely Rajput Population of the Suryavanshi lineage.Since the first Indian general elections in 952,Aurangabad has only ever elected Rajput representatives.Other family clansrepresented inAurangabad include the Mauryans, Guptas and the Gahadavalas (locally spelt “Gadhwal,Gaharwal in Bihar”).

In ancient times, Aurangabad was located in the Mahajanapadakingdom of Magadh (1200 – 322 BCE). The ancient rulers of the townincluded Bimbisara (late 5th centuryBCE),Ajatashatru(early 4th century BCE), Chandragupta Maurya (321 – 298 BCE) and Ashoka(268 – 232 BCE).

During the rule of Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 1545 CE), Aurangabad became strategically important as part of the Rohtas Sirkar(district). After the death of Sher Shah Suri Aurangabad fell under the rule of Akbar. The Afghan upsurge in the area wassuppressed by Todar Mal. Some elements of Afghan architecture remain.

After the downfall of the Mughal Empire, Aurangabad was ruled by the zamindars. the wealthy land owners, including those of Deo, Kutumba, Mali, Pawai, Chandragarh, and Siris. The zamindars resisted British rule. For example, Fateh Narayan Singh of Deo, descendent of Shakti Singh, supported Kunwar Singh against the British.

In 1865, Bihar District was separated from Patna District. Aurangabad was made a subdivision of Bihar district. Stement wasthe first subdivisional officer of Aurangabad subdivision. The first Member of Parliament from the district was the former Chief Minister of Unified Bihar, Satyendra Narayan Singh (Chhote Saheb).

On 26 January 1973, Aurangabad district, Bihar was created (government notification number 07/11-2071-72 dated 19 January 1973). K. A. H. Subramanyam was the first district magistrate and Surjit Kumar Saha was the sub-divisional officer.